The Aword

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During the following year, 1965, various papers concerning adverse effects of oily contrast media were published.

These included Fisher's study ([1]) of cats, which showed "mild inflammation in all animals".

Fisher noted that Pantopaque was poorly absorbed and was more irritating as an emulsion; he suggested that this was due to reduced particle size, thereby increasing the area of exposure and thus the meningeal reaction.

Hempel and Zeitler () concluded that Pantopaque was equal to Lipiodol in its effects on humans.

Maupin, Baker and Kerr ([2]) conducted a study looking at intrathecal injection of Pantopaque into the cistern in dogs.

They noted that the emulsion form gave rise to a more severe reaction with obliteration of the subarachnoid space and dense matting of the spinal roots.
Swartz () also detailed a case of obliterative adhesive arachnoiditis and hydrocephalus a year after cervical myelography.

[1] Fisher RL Radiology 1965 Sep; 83 (3): 537-45 An experimental evaluation of Pantopaque and other recently developed myelographic contract media.


[2] Maupin, Baker, Kerr Radiology 1965 Emulsified Pantopaque, Its possible application for myelography